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Slipher's spectra established that the spiral nebulae are extragalactic and gave their velocities... "both of those models were [valid] solutions to Einstein's equations..." - 1926 Edwin Hubble: Extra-galactic Nebulae: "This contribution gives the results of a statistical investigation of 400 extragalactic nebulae for which Holetschek has determined total visual magnitudes." - 1927 Georges Lemaître: Two years before Hubble, Lemaître explicitly published what was later misnamed the "Hubble Law", in his paper, "A homogeneous universe of constant mass and increasing radius accounting for the radial velocity of a period of time in which the universe was static.What Lemaître sought were solutions to [Einstein's] field equations that would avoid "Einstein's static universe... (Eddington in 1931 estimated the universe originally at between a billion and 1.2 billion light years in radius before it began expanding and later that same year Lemaître wrote in Monthly Notices on how, "the expansion of may be started..." (Note, this explicitly is NOT a big bang origin of the universe but the start of an expansion of a universe already in existence.) - 1929 Edwin Hubble: A relation between distance and radial velocity among extra-galactic nebulae, which paper included the "Hubble Law" [called that because Hubble failed to attribute it as Lemaître's Law].

Consider also from Ostriker & Milton, for Lemaître in "Belgium in 1925...

The first couple items in this list come from the highly sophisticated maps of the (shadowless) CMB (cosmic microwave background) and subsequent analysis.

Consider: - the enormous cold spot in the universe - the CMB's axis of evil - the quantized redshifts of a million galaxies so far do not affirm the Copernican principle and instead suggest that the universe have a center near the Milky Way - the Milky Way resides in a low density void two billion light years in diameter - the superstructures of the universe including the astounding 5-billion-light-year spiral of galaxies discovered in 2015 - the fine structure that appears to have a smaller value in one direction of the universe and a larger in another - the fractal distribution of matter throughout the universe apparently observed on all scales.

Big Bang theorists have spent decades looking for antimatter regions of the universe with leading astronomers culminating a significant project by writing in The Astrophysical Journal: "we conclude that a matter-antimatter symmetric universe is empirically excluded." The journal reports a physicist's assessment: "The work is extremely compelling and gives me fresh pessimism" that is, on the difficulty of explaining why the universe even exists.

For a creationist and a secular explanation of this problem, see's report on the Discovery Channel's How the Universe Works, and see this Fermilab antimatter video: Yet even secular science authorities have begun objecting to the systematic misattribution, and hence, post-dating, of the the claim of expansion.

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